Chronic allograft injury: an Overview of Pathogenesis and Treatment Strategies


Chronic allograft injury (CAI) remains one of the biggest challenges in transplantation as it directly affects long-term allograft survival, an area in which the scientific and transplantation community has struggled to improve outcomes. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of CAI is paramount in order to implement preventive measures and novel therapeutic options. In this review, we will address the latest evidence on CAI, potential etiologies and risk factors including non-adherence, antibody-mediated rejection, recurrence of glomerular disease, BK nephropathy and calcineurin nephrotoxicity.


Hector M. Madariaga, Leonardo V. Riella.

Contrib Nephrol. 2017, vol 190, pp 168–180


Causes of chronic allograft injury

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