Although gene-environment interactions have been investigated for many years to understand people’s susceptibility to autoimmune diseases or cancer, a role for environmental factors in modulating alloimmune responses and transplant outcomes is only now beginning to emerge. New data suggest that diet, hyperlipidemia, pollutants, commensal microbes, and pathogenic infections can all affect T cell activation, differentiation, and the kinetics of graft rejection. These observations reveal opportunities for novel therapeutic interventions to improve graft outcomes as well as for noninvasive biomarker discovery to predict or diagnose graft deterioration before it becomes irreversible. In this Review, we will focus on the impact of these environmental factors on immune function and, when known, on alloimmune function, as well as on transplant fate.
Leonardo V. Riella, Jessamyn Bagley, John Iacomini, and Maria-Luisa Alegre
Model for the modulation of transplant outcomes by the microbiota as a central and rapid integrator of host-environmental pressures.